Why GIT ?
Every time you’re asked to submit that crucial programming assignment what comes to your mind after completion of the program ? Uh, not a movie. It’s GIT I know ! So, that’s exactly how you proceed towards storing your lovely little program forever so that you can hug your code every time you miss your ex right?
Git is a terrific way to store not just code but almost every kind of file you can think of that can be stored online. It employs altogether a different approach of controlling versions of your files. While other similar tools like SVN are Centralized Revision Control Systems (CRVS), Git employs Distributed Revision Control System(DRVCS). So, every person having access to your repository can clone your code and maintain a local copy of exactly the same data as in GitHub and can make changes locally with full control. So, in some catastrophical situation, god forbid, some client who cloned your code from Peru can help you to recover your data !!!
There can be nothing better than Git’s own website but I am here to help you skip some contrived details and dive right into basic usage of Git.
git init– Initializes a local Git repository in your current local directory
git clone <remote_repository_name>– Clones a remote repository to your local git repository
git add <file_name1,file_name2...> or git add * or git add .– Stages (consider it analogically as a local buffer where you store files that are to be committed) your marked files or all for commit
git commit -m "<message>"– Commits the staged files with ‘message’ as commit message
git push <remote_name> <remote_branch_name>– Pushes your code to the remote named ‘origin’ and its branch ‘master’
git remote add <remote_name> <remote_repository_URL>– Adds a remote repository of given name and given URL
git remote -v– Displays all remotes with URLs
git checkout -b feature_x– Creates a new branch ‘feature_x’ and switches to the branch
git branch -a or git branch -r or git branch– Shows branches ; ‘r’ for remote only
git checkout -- <file_name>– Discards changes to file
git log– Gives commit history
git status– Gives status of staging area and working directory
git checkout <branch_name>– Moves the HEAD to the specified branch
git pull– Pulls code from remote repository’s tracker branch (default /master) to current local branch
git fetch origin– Fetches code first from Remote repository’s tracker branch to local branch without merging th code. Gives a chance to check the code before merging
git merge <branch_name>– Merges fetched code from specified branch
Note : I will be covering a topic on Basic Branching and Merging in GIT including Merge conflicts soon
Don’t play around with the commands below !!!
git reset --soft HEAD~– Move HEAD to previous commit, Staging Area stays the same
git reset --mixed HEAD~– Move HEAD to previous commit, Staging area also gets erased, Working Directory unaffected
git reset --hard HEAD~– Move HEAD to previous commit, Staging area erased, Working directory moved to previous commit DANGEROUS !!!
git reset HEAD <file_name>– Unstages the specified file